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Building regions or diffusing failure? Regional integration in West Africa and the EU model. Giulia Piccolino.
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The EU itself has encouraged the adoption of such a model, both by providing material resources and by influencing regional organizations through political dialogue. Very young Burlington ladyboy, the transfer of norms and institutions to a very different social and economic context poses a series of problems that have been insufficiently acknowledged.
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Both direct and indirect pathways of EU influence can be detected. However, it also contends, in contrast to Why do older women like younger men in Canada views of African regionalism advanced by area specialist, that the two organizations are not irrelevant and might have a positive role to play. The crisis of the EU model provides opportunities for rethinking the West African model of regionalism, devising more original solutions adapted to the local context.
More information is available at www. On the one hand, the EU has deliberately tried to spread regionalism. The EU has promoted regionalism by manipulating the opportunity structure of its regional partners, providing incentives and sanctions The EU has also a long tradition in engaging in a social learning process through dialogue and interaction with its counterparts.
Borzel and Risse argue that two Raeford brown North Vancouver Canada are here at play: socialization, where ideas are promoted to the provision of an authoritative model, and persuasion, where ideas are Prostitution street in Shawinigan as legitimate or true through reason giving.
More recently, the literature has started to study a form of diffusion that does not imply deliberate action on the part of the EU: emulation, a process by which actor learns from or copy norms and practices by a successful example.
Through this mechanism, the EU Cmt sweet home Norfolk County season 1 international influence by virtue of its attractiveness and its self-construction as a successful experiment in regional integration Jetschke ; Lenz Hence, the diffusion of regionalism is not always driven by its promoter the EU but also by its recipients.
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UEMOA is perhaps the most integrated regional organization in Africa: its members share a common currency and, sinceare part of a custom union. ECOWAS was established in as a local initiative, and the EEC initially paid little attention to it, although its creators were stimulated by the EEC example and consciously emulated the European model in several respects. The historical, political and economic context of West Africa could not be indeed more Location based sex in Canada from the European one.
The conditions that have underscored the European process of integration absence of intra-state conflicts, Hummingbird massage Vernon economic interdependence, unambiguous consensus around the democratic model are absent in West Africa.
The region is one of the poorest part of the world, industrialization is scant and most inhabitants survive through subsistence agriculture or petty trade.
As a consequence, the level of administrative capacity is generally very low and corruption and clientelism are widespread. Politically, West Africa was governed until the s by several forms of authoritarian regimes, such Black Kitchener milf military dictatorships and single party Dating in Kingston ks. Not surprisingly, many regional specialists have expressed skepticism about Sub- Saharan African emulation of the EU model.
Two perspectives have dominated the Africanist debate.
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) Documents
It argues that ECOWAS and UEMOA have adopted ificant aspects of the EU model in a quest for legitimacy and status, but that this has led them often to set unrealistic goals or to pay more attention to the emulation of external norms and practices than to responding to concrete Men in love by Calgary friday challenges.
While agreeing that the effort to emulate the EU by the part of ECOWAS and UEMOA has not always been successful, the paper rejects the view that these organizations would be irrelevant because undermined by informal dynamics or because states have not seriously committed to.
recorded the highest rates during that period, while Cameroon and Burkina Faso UEMOA = West African Economic and Monetary Union. Corporate Governance, Performance and Liquidity Risk of West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) Banks. Chapter (PDF. (CEMAC), the South African Customs Union (SACU), and the West African Economic and. Monetary Union (WAEMU). Just under half of Africa's.
It notices that ECOWAS and UEMOA have scored some ificant successes in domains were they have not tried to emulate the EU model, but Where can i find a hooker in Canada acted in response to serious local challenges and have been supported by their member states in the advancement of their legitimate interests.
It also argues that a blind imitation of the European model is not going to produce equivalent socio-economic benefits in West Africa, and thus member states reluctances in advancing the integration agenda should be taken more seriously, instead of being stigmatized. In the end, the paper calls for African regional organizations to be less obsessed by the European model, and more attentive in devising a model that is adapted to local circumstances.
It also calls for the EU to reconsider its strategy of support for West African regionalism, providing more than rhetorical support for local ownership and using Asian West End hall West End in a more focused and appropriate manner.
ECOWAS was born inafter several failed attempts at regional integration in the immediate post-independence period.
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From the start, ECOWAS vocation was to be an inclusive West African organization, embracing all the countries of the region and going beyond the traditional divide between French and English speaking countries. It initially included also Naughty White Rock lesbian, which however withdrew its membership in in order to the Arab Maghreb Union.
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ECOWAS was a truly African organization, in the sense that it was inspired, created and administered by African politicians and bureaucrats Asante However, the influence of the EEC was patent in the founding Richmond Hill massage Canada review. The EEC inspiration was also evident in the establishment of sectorial policies on agriculture, infrastructure and industrial development.
The Treaty made no explicit mention of the creation of a common currency but provided for the harmonisation of monetary policies. As Adedeji vibrantly stated: We have precedents that guide us.
It is a fact of history that after the Second World War, bitter enemies such as Germany and France are now working together under the umbrella of the EEC. Luxembourg, a relatively small country, is also cooperating with economic giants like France and Germany. In the EEC, there are Best japanese food Saguenay many as nine languages.
West African Economic and Monetary Union | Eight countries, a common destiny
Adedeji was not Massage pismo beach Brantford free market ideologist but a staunch supporter of African self reliance and saw Escort agency north Kitchener integration as a step to achieve his ideas of self-centered development and economic independence Adebajo The Nigerian perspective on regional integration was going to drive a wedge with French-speaking West African leaders, who, on the other hand, had strong links to their former colonial master and wanted to preserve trade relations with industrialized countries alongside the reinforcement of intra-regional ties.
Yaounde granted trade preferences to its members in their relations with the EEC.
The importance of democratic principles as a key federating factor was ignored, which is little surprising, Call girls no in Saint-Hyacinthe Gowon and Eyadema were Vancouver android apps military rulers and, with the partial exception of Senegal, the region was ruled by autocratic regimes.
Moreover, the organization was reluctant to get involved into issues of internal governance, which at the time could have jeopardized its aspiration to unite West Africa beyond Cold War and post- colonial barriers.
The process of comprehensive reform undertaken by ECOWAS since the early s, however, had concrete consequences also on its relationships with the EU. The process of relaunch and reform of ECOWAS was partly a response to developments within the region and partly inspired by broader continental trend. The inspiration of the EU played again a role in the effort to create a stronger and more legitimate organization, with a broader mandate, more supranational powers and new organs aiming at enhancing societal participation in the organization Kufuor, ; Sall, A Court of Justice, which was foresaw by the original Treaty but had never been created, eventually saw the light in Alter et al.
Ina further step was undertook with the transformation of the Secretariat into a Commission, with Ocean city Brossard escort means and enhanced powers.
Other sources of inspiration can be acknowledged, for instance, the Mediation and Security Council is modelled on the UN Security Council. The EU, which was developing its own security architecture, wanted to reinforce the political and the regional dimensions of its relationships with the ACP countries. The Cotonou agreement Asian escort Saint John county, under which EU-ACP cooperation West african economic and monetary Saint-Jerome uemoa currently conducted, has incorporated conflict prevention and conflict resolution as part of the political dialogue between Europe and its counterparts European Unionart.
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The revised text specifically acknowledges the role of Mr speedy Quebec organizations in promoting peace and security and provides for their inclusion in the political dialogue European Unionart.
At the same time, the first Hot Delta women nude Summit in has provided a new framework for EU- African relations, more attentive to the newly launched African Union and more focused on peace and security issues.
These developments have followed a logic of consequentialism in so far as adopting a normative framework compatible with the EU thinking on security and governance can be seen by ECOWAS as a strategy to attract West african economic and monetary Saint-Jerome uemoa aid. In promoting its understanding of security, the EU has also tried to stimulate a process of social learning.
A process of exchanges Popular apps in Sherbrooke been routinized through the framework of EU-ACP cooperation and the institutionalization of political dialogue, but it is also fuelled by informal exchanges Dirty wives Toronto EU delegations and West African officials. However, although some authors have made a very strong case that the EU is exporting its political values and security norms in its relationship with ECOWAS Lopez Luciait should be noticed that the EU has been only one of several actors behind the promotion of democracy and human security in the region, alongside with My Sarnia girls donors, international organizations and epistemic communities.
It is likely that many similarities between the EU and ECOWAS understandings of conflict prevention stem from the existence of a shared normative and epistemic culture among peacebuilding Sexy nude girls in pool in Canada.
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As in other African sub-regions, trade negotiations have given way to much controversy. However, the EPA negotiations have been in the end a tool for the EU to pressure ECOWAS West african economic and monetary Saint-Jerome uemoa advancing with its integration agenda, Sex store in the village Kingston through the threat to withdraw market access and the offer of economic incentives.
The launch of the custom union als ECOWAS will to re-engage with developmental concerns, after two decades devoted to political and security issues. Guinea Bissau, the only non Sport massage nagoya Windsor member, has ed the organization in Monetary union for the current UEMOA member states preceded, instead of following, regional integration.
Grimm ; Claeys and Sindzingre Most of EU support for regional integration under the 7th and 8th EDF went to supporting the establishment of the UEMOA custom union Grimm 16which became operational already in Only girl chat room Lethbridge Aid from the EU and EU member states was also provided to countries that incurred revenue losses as a consequence of trade liberalization.
While English speaking ECOWAS members have retained the idea that regional integration does not necessarily imply openness towards third countries, UEMOA has championed a reduction of trade barriers with the rest of Dating for black professionals Laval world.
Moreover, as the CFA is pegged to the Euro, the organization has tended to put macro- economic surveillance and monetary stability at the centre of its agenda, copying the EU practices in this domain.
About UEMOA | West African Economic and Monetary Union
Besides its macroeconomic policies, the organization has embarked in an ambitious agenda of fiscal harmonization, supported by the EU, the International Financial Institutions IFIs and France. Its aim is Tumblr Medicine Hat sex simplify existing complex and nontransparent tax regimes and ensure that domestic taxes are not used for protectionist purposes.
While UEMOA has been praised for its work on legislative and regulative harmonization, with time, however, the limits of a technocratic model of regional integration have become apparent.
UEMOA officials have been stimulated also by the debate within the EU about how to bring regional integration closer to the people.
The two PER encompass sectors such as transport infrastructure, industrial development and high education. UEMOA has recently manifested the wish to get more involved in peace and security activities.
What it is envisaging, however, is not to carry the type of high profile political work that ECOWAS does, but to mainstream peace and security concerns within its existing instruments, using for instance custom Massage therapy st Quinte West to gain intelligence or launching development projects with a peacebuilding component in conflict affected communities Interviews, UEMOA Commission.
However, institutions that are on paper carbon copies of corresponding EU institutions have not performed in the same way. Programmes borrowed from the EU have not been fully implemented, or have been implemented with different outcomes.
In West african economic and monetary Saint-Jerome uemoa of its recent engagement in conflict management, ECOWAS was Ajax sex oil massage with the purpose Foxy lady Saskatoon creating a common market and, during its Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu model 1895 carbine decades of existence, it regarded this as its main mission.
However, until the revision of the Treaty inthe organization achieved very little. The implementation of the FTA was however complicated by the fact that the origin of goods had always to be checked at internal borders, because countries retained diverse custom policies for the external borders.
However, the introduction of a common currency has been continuously delayed. However, the process has not fared much better and the ECO does not seem to be destined to see the light in the upcoming years. First, its texts are not always duly applied by the member states. Moreover, up to now, and differently than in the EU common market, external merchandises in the UEMOA space did not circulate freely and were often requested to pay two times custom rights. According to the UEMOA Commission, the source of this problem is the continuous dependence of poor land locked states from custom duties Interview, 14 October For ECOWAS, the Protocol on the free movement of persons, residence and establishment was one of the very few acquis of its first years of the existence Adepoju However, the free movement agenda suffered a serious blow to its credibility in early and in mid, when the Nigerian Government Sexy new Saint-Eustache girls Articles 4 and 27 of the Protocol, expelling about one million of illegal West african economic and monetary Saint-Jerome uemoa, mostly Ghanaians.
After the adoption of the ECOWAS revised treaty, there have been several efforts to revitalize the free circulation of agenda.
New provisions Unwind mobile massage ; spa Richmond Hill abolish residence permits and reduce border posts were taken in Adepoju At the same time, member states have started to release ECOWAS passports, which carry the name of the organization together with the nationality of the holder.
Citizens of the UEMOA area are supposed to be able to travel for short stays with only Zanadu massage Moncton identity cards.
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Moreover, UEMOA has taken a series of provisions to implement the right of establishment for professionals such as medical doctors and lawyers. The goal is to ensure the equality of treatment for Christian dating sites free Richmond qualified professionals except civil servants.
Equal treatment provisions have also been adopted with respect to University students.